Hyperthyroidism, cause, SIGN and SYMPTOMS, management ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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Hyperthyroidism, cause, SIGN and SYMPTOMS, management



 DEFINITION 

    In this condition the T3 and T4 level became increased in the blood. 

ETIOLOGY 

  ● Adenoma of the thyroid gland. ( T3 and T4 increased but TSH became decrease due to negative feedback mechanisms. )

  ● Adenoma of anterior pituitary (TSH Became increased so T3 and T4 also increased. )

  ● Graves Disease 

                              It is a autoimmune disease in this condition autoantibodies are formed and it appears similar to the TSH . Now the antibodies bind with the TSH receptors and provide continuous stimulation to the follicular cells in the thyroid gland. So the T3 and T4 became increase but the TSH level became Decrease due to negative feedback mechanisms. 

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS 

    ☆ BMR increased.. 

    ☆ Heat intolerance .

    ☆ Pollycythemia  .

    ☆ Smooth skin, silky and shiny hair .

    ☆ Hyperglycemia .

    ☆ Tachycardia, Techyponea ,Hypertension. 

    ☆ Diarrhea weight loss. 

    ☆ Irritability and mood swings. 

    ☆ Insomnia.

    ☆ Menstrual cycles irregular in females. 

    ☆ Sexual disfunction in males. 

    ☆ Protruded eye ball .

    ☆ Goiter. 

MANAGMENT 

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT 

    -The antithyroid medication should be administered. Eg.  Propilthyourecil (PTU),Methamezol

    -The drug should be administered after breakfast because it can cause gastric Irritability in the empty stomach. 

    - The side effects of PTU is Leukopenia( decrease WBC caunt). So observers this patient for the chance of infection. 

    - Monitor for the toxicity of antithyroid medication ( Bradycardia and hypothermia).

SURGICAL MANAGMENT 

1. Hypophysectomy .

2. Thyroidectomy. 

Nursing responsibilities 

1.Mantain patent airway. 

2. Provide semi Fowler's position. 

3.The Tracheostomy set should be always present at the bed side of patient. 

4. Monitor the chances of bleeding ( asses in the back of neck for blood accumulation. ).

5. Monitor for the sign of hypocalcemia. eg. Titany and tingling sensation around mouth. 

The hypocalcemia indicat the accidental removal of the parathyroid hormone. 

6. Asses for the speaking ability. In this surgery the recurrent laryngeal nerve may be damaged. 

7. If nerve is damage Aphonia will occur. 

8. Frequent swallowing indicat bleeding in the period of after tencelactomy. 




    


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