HYPOPARATHYRODISM , DEFINETION , ETIOLOGY , ASSESMENT FINDING ,DIAGNOSIS, MANAGMEMT ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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HYPOPARATHYRODISM , DEFINETION , ETIOLOGY , ASSESMENT FINDING ,DIAGNOSIS, MANAGMEMT



 DEFINETION

                     In this condition the level of Parathyroid hormone become decreased 

ETIOLOGY 

            1. Trauma 

            2. Suppressing tumor .

            3. Parathyroidectomy .

            4. Accidental removal of parathyroid gland during thyroidectomy,

ASSESMENT FINDING 

     * Due to decrease parathyroid hormone the serum calcium level become decrease.

     * Hypocalcemia occur and this hypocalcemia produce different symptom such as...

            - Bradycardia 

            - Hypotension 

            - Nerve transmission become irritate 

            - Tetany [hypertonic muscles construction occurs when serum calcium level more then 6 mg/dl]

            - tingling around the mouth and in the extremities

            - diarrhea 

        * Sign of hypocalcemia 

             1. CHOVISTIC SIGN 

                                         When the facial nerve is stimulated by taping at angle of mouth near the ear then the response is twisting in the facial muscles .

           2. TROSSEU'S SIGN 

                                       A blood pressure cuff is applied on the arm then it is inflated upto systolic BP     + 20 mm of hg . Now it should remain inflated for 3 minute . The response is charbopadal spasm [a spasm in the wrist and hand ],

         3. ERB'S SIGN / ERB'S WESTEPHAL SIGN 

                       When miner electrical stimulation is provided to the skeletal muscles then the response is spasmodic muscles contraction .

DIAGNOSIS

           *A diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism is made based upon identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation and a variety of specialized tests. Blood tests can reveal abnormal levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone. Urine tests can reveal if the body is excreting too much calcium. 

          

MANAGMENT 

      * HRT should be provided .

      * The tracheostomy set should be always available at bed side .

     * In emergency condition inj. calcium gluconate can be administration by IV route [10 ml 10% over 10 minute .

     * Provide high calcium diet . 


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