RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME ,CAUSES , SYMPTOM , DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT ,respiratory distress syndrome type 2 ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME ,CAUSES , SYMPTOM , DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT ,respiratory distress syndrome type 2

 


DEFINITION 

            Deficiency or absence of surfactant in the lunges this called respiratory  distress syndrome.

       surfactant - It is formed of phospholipid . it include two chemical lecithin and sphingomyelin . The normal L and S retio 2:1.

                          * surfactant is produce by alveoli type 2 cell of lunges . surfactant formation start at 20 week and complete at 30 week of gestation. the steroid hormones stimulate the alveoli type 2 cell for the production of surfactant . the surfactant reduce the surface tension in the lunges so it prevent collapsing of the alveoli.

CAUSES/ RISK FECTOR

         -Preterm new born .

         - New born of diabetic mother.

SIGN AND SYMPTOM 

      *  The new born appear normal at birth the symptom start after five to six hours.

      * Nasal flaring 

      * Intercoastal retraction .

      * Grunting sound .

      * Tachypnea .

      * Cyanosis.

     * In the let stage of disease the maximum alveoli become collapse . The lunges appear like a thick membrane and this condition is known as hyaline membrane disease.

DIAGNOSIS 

      1. Antenatal diagnosis

                          shack test -    0.5 ml amniotic fluid + 0.5 ml NS + 1 ml ethanol [95%]

                                                                               ↓

                                                    Shack the tube for 2-3 minute 

                                                                                ↓

                                                   Place the tube in vertical position

                                                                                ↓

                           1. Bubbles are absent                               2. Bubbles are present 

                                         ↓                                                                   ↓

                             Surfactant absent - RDS Positive                  Normal fetus 

  2. Postnatal  Diagnosis 

             - Shack test by gastric aspiration.

             - ABG analysis 

             - Chest x ray - Ground glass mottled appearance indicate hyaline membrane disease .

MANEGEMENT / TREATMENT 

                   Initial routine intervention should be perform provide CPAP mode of ventilator to prevent collapsing of the alveoli .

                Administer surfactant by the intra tracheal route . it is provide through the endotracheal tube .

Prevention of RDS  -   Steroid therapy is administer in the mother ,the drug of choice beta methasone .

                                  Dose 12 mg /day for 2 day route IM

      There should minimum 48 hours gap between steroid administration and delivery.

                                         






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