ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECT ,causes ,diagnosis ,treatment , sign and symptom ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECT ,causes ,diagnosis ,treatment , sign and symptom

                                  ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECT

    Abnormal opening in the abdominal wall is called abdominal wall defect . It is congenital abnormality .

CAUSE / RISK FACTOR

                    Exposer of the mother to teratogenic substance such as rediation , TORCH infection , smoking , drug abuse , alcohol use during pregnancy .


TYPE OF ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECT

          

 1. OMPHELOCELE                                                    2. GASTROSCHISIS

 ➤ Abnormal opening is present at the            ➤ Abnormal opening is present lateral to the umbilicus.

      level of umbilicus.                                      ➤ Organ are protrusions.

 ➤ Organ are protrusions.                             ➤ Protrused organ are directaly expose to the environment.

 ➤ Protrused organ are covered by                        and transparent membrane is absent .

      transparent membrane


DIAGNOSIS

         *    Antenatal Diagnosis - Maternal serum alfa fetoprotein {MSAFP} test should be                done.

         * If the level increase it indicate abdominal wall defect or neural tube defect.

         * If the level is decrease it indicate down syndrome { trisomy 21 chromosome}

         * Physical examination .

TREATMENT / MANEGEMENT             

       Initial treatment - 

                  * Provide supine position .

                  * Cover the defect with a non - adhesive dressing .

                  * A sterile normal seline dipped gauze piece can be used.

                  * Apply plastic dript over the gauze piece to prevent  evaporation .

  Surgical treatment - the surgery should be perform as early as possible .

                               - The protrused organ should be reverted back and then abnormal                                              opening should be closed .  

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