DIABETIC KETO ACIDOSIS , RISK FECTOR, SYMPTOMS , INVESTIGATION AND TREATMENT ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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DIABETIC KETO ACIDOSIS , RISK FECTOR, SYMPTOMS , INVESTIGATION AND TREATMENT

                           DIABETIC KETO ACIDOSIS 


It occur in the patient of type 1st Diabetes mellitus . It can also occur in 

the late condition of type 2nd DM. In the type 1st DM insulin is absent

 so fat break down will occur . Ketone bodies formation will occur due to

 fat break down . These ketone bodies are acidic in nature and causes

 metabolic acidosis.

RISK FACTOR 

                * Missed dose of insulin 

                * Infection commonly in urinary track infection -

                                     During infection inflammation occur so the anti 

 inflammatory hormone , steroid level become increased . This excessive

 steroid increase blood sugar level and also increase the demand of insulin.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

      * Hyperglycemia  .

      * Glycosuria 

      * polyurea

      * Nausea and vomiting 

      * Dehydration 

      *  Shock

      * Metabolic acidosis

      * kussmaul respiration

      * Acetone breath 

      * Hypokalemia

Investigation / diagnosis 

    *  Blood sugar level more then 350 mg/dl.

    * PH less then 7.35

   *  sodabicarb less then 15 meq/lit

   *  blood ketone positive

   *  Urinary ketone positive .

TREATMENT

    Maintain patent airway .

 * Provide oxygen therapy 

 * Start insulin therapy.

 * Start IV fluid therapy with normal saline.

 * Continuously monitor the patient .

Complication

      There is two major complications occur during insulin therapy such as

           1. Hypokalemia - It can be prevented by add by potassium  in the fluid .

           2. Hypoglycemia - To prevent hypoglycemia check blood sugar level every one hour and if the blood sugar level is less then 250 mg/dl then start iv dextrose therapy .


          

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