Erythroblastosis Fetalis causes ,sign and symptom , pathophysiology , complication , treatment ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

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Erythroblastosis Fetalis causes ,sign and symptom , pathophysiology , complication , treatment

                         ERYTHROBLATOSIS FETALIS

     


   Erythroblastosis fetalis is hemolytic anemia in the in the fetus cause by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetus red blood cells. the disorder usually result from incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood groups, often Rho [D] antigen. Diagnosis begins with prenatal maternal antigenic and antibody screening may require prenatal screening , serial measurement of maternal antibody titers and fetal testing.

 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

                When mother is Rh negative and baby is Rh positive.

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      There is no problem in the first baby during the delivery of first baby some amount of blood reach in the mother blood.

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     Which result production of antibody against D - antigen in the mother blood .

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    During the development of next Rh positive baby, the antibodies cross the placenta and reach to the babies blood .

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   Antigen - Antibody reaction occur which result hemolysis .

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   There is rapid RBC production in the fetus blood which result immature RBC count in the fetus blood in erythroblastic state .

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   Number of erythroblast cell increase in the fetus blood .

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                                   Erythroblastosis fetalis.  

COMPLICATION TO THE FETUS -

             * Hemolytic  anemia .

             * Hemolytic jaundice

             * Kernicterus

             * Renal failure

             * Hydrops fetalis  

  DIAGNOSIS

  • Maternal blood and Rh typing and reflex antibody screening

  • Serial antibody level measurements and middle cerebral artery blood flow measurements for pregnancies considered at risk

  • Cell-free fetal DNA screening.

TREATMENT / MANAGEMENT

         * Baby admit in NICU.

         * Put him/ her on ventilator .

         * INJ. Dexamethasone to increase lunges maturity .

          * Administer blood transfusion .

         * Rh negative should be administer to the Rh positive blood for initial 24 hours after birth.

         * Phototherapy for jaundice.

   PRIVENTION OF ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

        - The RHOGAM { Anti - D gamma globulin } which is antibody should be administered to the Rh negative mother who delivered a Rh positive baby with in 72 hour after birth .

       - Dose of RhoGAM 1500 IU or 300 mcg 

               route intramuscular         

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