March 2021 ~ Medical diseases and trems ,symptoms causes TREATMENT

Medieducator.com

This is default featured slide 1 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.This theme is Bloggerized by Lasantha Bandara - Premiumbloggertemplates.com.

This is default featured slide 2 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.This theme is Bloggerized by Lasantha Bandara - Premiumbloggertemplates.com.

This is default featured slide 3 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.This theme is Bloggerized by Lasantha Bandara - Premiumbloggertemplates.com.

This is default featured slide 4 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.This theme is Bloggerized by Lasantha Bandara - Premiumbloggertemplates.com.

This is default featured slide 5 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.This theme is Bloggerized by Lasantha Bandara - Premiumbloggertemplates.com.

PYELONEPHRITIS CAUSES , TYPES , SIGN AND SYMPTOMS , DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

                                        PYELONEPHRITIS



             Inflammation of the renal pelvis and inflammation of the parenchyma .

    Nature of infection

                  Ascending infection due to vesicoureteral reflex most common   90%and haematogenous 10%.

TYPES OF PYELONEPHRITIS 

  1. ACCORDING TO OCCURANCE -

        - Acute pyelonephritis.

        - Chronic pyelonephritis.

  2. According to kidney involvement -

       - Unilateral [ most common ]

       - Bilateral  { rarely }.

CAUSES-

      E- Coli { Most common }

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  * Flank pain on affected site 

  * costovertebral angel tenderness 

  * Urgency and frequency .

  * Dysuria , pyuria , Haematuria , protein urea.

  * Nausea, vomiting , dehydration 

  * Fever 

  * Diaphoresis. 

DIAGNOSIS

   * History and physical examination

   * Urine analysis

   * Urine culture

   * Increase TLC and ESR

   * KUB X- ray

   * USG ABDOMAN AND KUB

   * Cystoscopy.

MANAGEMENT

    Medical management

         * Antibiotic

         * Diuretics 

         * Antipyretics

         * Analgesic 

         * Urinary track antiseptic .

    Nursing management 

       * check vital sign 

       * Input- Output  charting 

       * Health education.

   Diet management 

       * Increase fluid intake .

       * Acid ash diet to decrease PH of urine .

 

THALASSEMIA, CAUSES , TYPES OF THALASSEMIA , SIGN AND SYMPTOM, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT

                                                  THALASSEMIA



             It is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder characterised by formation of microcytic hypochromic RBC from bone marrow.

CAUSES 

              * It is an inheritance disorder .

                  * Defective gene are found upon autosome .

                  * The gene is recessive .

TYPES OF THALASSEMIA

         1. α{Alpha} Thalassemia-

                  α chain of haemoglobin is absent or abnormal .

            

         2. "β" Thalassemia - 

                    "β" chain of haemoglobin is abnormal or absent. It is more common and more danger.

 SIGN AND SYMPTOME 

          * Clinical sign of anemia .

             * Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly .

             * Haemolytic anemia .

             * Risk of Iron overload .

             * The morphology of RBC is microcytic hypochromic .

DIAGNOSIS

        * History - the disorder diagnose at the time of birth.

           * Physical examination -

                      Yellowish / whitish Discoloration of sclera .

                      Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly by palpation .

          * CBC 

          * Microscopic examination of RBC .

          * Reticulocyte count increase .

          * LFT increase bilirubin  .

          * USG Abdomen 

          * Serum iron level increase 

          * Hb Electrophoresis - confirmatory  test for thalassemia.

TREATMENT 

       1. Temporary Treatment 

                       - Maximum Rest no any heavy exercise .

                               - Avoid outer game 

                               - BT / PCV transfusion .

                               - Monitor iron level before BT. If it is high then chelation therapy done.

                               - There is always risk of iron overload in patient with thalassemia due to multiple blood transfusion.

         2. Permanent treatment- 

                  * Bone merrow transplantation .

 

                              


     

Nerve Supply to the heart and Blood vessels

             NERVE SUPPLY TO THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS

         There are to type of nerve fibres supply to the heart and blood vessels .

  1. SYMPATHETIC NERVE FIBRES -

          The has been arise from spinal cord. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibres cause -

                 * Increase heart rate.

                 * Increase force of contraction .

                 * Increase peripheral resistance.

                 * cardiac output .

                 * Increase blood pressure .

                 * Vasoconstriction pf blood vessels and vasodilation of coronary artery.

     - Sympathetic system 

                     🠟

       Stimulatory system 

                      🠟

       Fight or flight response 

                      example- Fear , exercise, stress , sadness.

    2.PARA SYMPATHETIC NERVE FIBRES-

           They has been arise from brain cranial nerve and vagus nerve. Stimulation of vagus nerve cause-

                 * Decrease heart rate .

                 * Decrease force of contraction.

                 * Decrease cardiac output .

                 * Decrease blood pressure .

                 * Decrease peripheral resistance.

                 * vasodilation of blood vessels and vasoconstriction of coronary artery .

            Example - Relaxation, sleep, Happiness .